INTRODUCTION
There are have many modes of instruction; it may be in print mode or non-print.
In print media also we have many options. The most popular is the textbooks or the reference books. But apart from all these there are many other instructional materials, which instruct you by keeping you in touch with the happenings in the world; making you, acquaint with the latest innovations in every field; work in order to develop your skills,etc.

Here in this article we discuss some of these other instructional materials:
  1. Newspapers
  2. Encyclopedia
  3. Journals
  4. Workbooks
  5. Atlas
  6. Dictionary




NEWSPAPERS
Newspapers are much more current than course books, they make an excellent springboard for lessons, and they feature different types of language (narratives, stories, letters, advertising, reports, etc.).It can easily be modified for classroom use in the elementary grades.
Newspapers contain something of interest to everyone ranging from fashion, world news to sports. These appeals to any level of learner.
It contains creative ideas to help children improve reading, writing, social studies, math, and science skills AND provides a variety of classroom activities using newspapers.
One aim of reading newspapers should be to encourage students’ reading outside the classroom.


"WHY USE NEWSPAPERS?"
Ten of the reasons teachers find newspapers such effective classroom teaching tools are detailed below which points out that newspapers:
- are an adult medium that students of all ability levels can be proud to be seen reading.
- deal in what's happening here and now, providing motivation for reading and discussion.
- make learning fun.
- are extremely flexible and adaptable to all curriculum areas and grade levels.
- bridge the gap between the classroom and the "real" world.
- build good reading habits that will last a lifetime.
- can be cut, marked, clipped, pasted, filed, and recycled.
- give everyone something to read -- news, sports, weather, editorials, and comics.
- are a cost-effective way to educate.
- contain practical vocabulary and the best models of clear, concise writing.

“AIMS WITH NEWSPAPER AS A TEACHING-AID”
Newspapers can help a lot as a teaching-aid. Some of the basic ways it helps are listed below:

Ø CREATING AWARENESS
Newspapers, at the very first, develop a general awareness. Therefore, as instructional material, it can also be used to help students develop sensitivity and awareness of the self, the community, the nation, and the world.

Ø TEACHING COMPREHENSION

Teachers can use newspapers to teach comprehension and critical thinking. The various articles & the reports published in the newspapers can be used in this direction.


Ø DEVELOPING SKILLS
It can be used to teach basic skills in a variety of subject areas, including language arts, reading, mathematics, social studies, and science.
The activity sheets allow students to use the different newspaper sections to locate, categorize, and sequence details, and to distinguish fact from opinion.
The activity sheet also helps the students to locate main ideas, to form sentences, to find facts, to practice critical thinking skills, to solve math problems, to write creatively, and to comprehend better.
Ø DEVELOPING ABLE CITIZENS
Newspapers help in preparing the students for effective citizenship in an interdependent world, providing instruction in global concepts such as economic interdependence, the migrations of people, environmental independence, cultural diffusion, the communication revolution, and cultural diversity.

Ø MAKING READING REAL FOR ADULT LEARNERS AND LEARNING DISABLED STUDENTS

Newspapers can also prove to be a valuable tool for teachers who work with adult education students. Regular elementary school reading materials fail to motivate readers at the adult level and are also embarrassing for adults to use. They can use the newspaper as a learning resource to develop both reading and life skills.



“WAYS TO USE NEWSPAPER AS TEACHING-AID”

1) Using Words in Grocery Ads, Sports Sections, or Comics to Teach Alphabetizing;
2) Using News Stories to Teach Grammar;
3) Having Students Make Charts Or Collages Of Words Dealing With The Five Senses;
4) Asking Students To Select A Picture Or Photograph And To Write Their Own Stories;
5) Having Students Make A Timeline For Current Events;
6) Having Students Write Their Own Classified Ads;
7) Discussing The Key Elements Of A Book Or Movie Review; And
8) Asking Students To Design Their Own Newspaper To Report Events Happening In Class Or In School.

ACTIVITIES FOR USING THE NEWSPAPER
Read and write for meaning. Remove the headlines from a number of news stories. Display the headline-less stories on a classroom bulletin board. Provide students with the headlines, and ask them to match each to one of the stories. As students replace the missing headlines, ask them to point out the words in the headlines that helped them find the correct story. Then distribute headlines from less prominent stories and ask students to choose one and write a news story to go with it. When the stories have been completed, provide each student with the story that originally accompanied the headline.
`Read a map. Arrange students into groups, and assign each group one international story in the news. Have students explore Maps and choose a map related to their assigned story. Ask students to use the map to answer some or all of these questions:
  1. In what city did the story take place?
  2. What country is that city in?
  3. What is the capital of that country?
  4. What language is spoken there?
  5. What continent is the country part of?
  6. What countries or bodies of water border the country on the north, south, east, and west?
  7. What physical characteristics of the country might have contributed to the events in the story?
  8. What effect might the event or series of events have on the physical characteristics of the country?
Understand the media. Distribute advertisements cut from newspapers, and ask students to list the products in order, according to the appeal of the ads. As a follow-up to the activity, you might ask students to design their own ads.
Arrange in sequence. Cut up some popular comic strips, provide each student with one complete strip, and ask students to put the comics back in the correct order. Or arrange students into groups, provide each group with several cut-up strips from the same comic, and ask them to separate the panels into strips and arrange the strips in the correct order. Then introduce older students to a series of stories about an ongoing news event, and ask them to arrange the stories in the order in which they appeared. Encourage them to use the stories to create a news time line.
Expand your vocabulary. Assign each student a letter of the alphabet. Ask students to browse through the newspaper, find five unfamiliar words beginning with the assigned letter, and look up the definition of each. Then have each student create and illustrate a dictionary page containing the five words and their meanings. In a variation of this activity, you might ask students to look in the newspaper for any of the following:
  • words with a particular suffix or prefix
  • words containing a particular vowel sound or consonant blend
  • compound words
  • words in the past, present, and future tenses
  • possessives
  • plurals .etc.
Older students might look for examples of similes, metaphors, irony, hyperbole, and satire.
Explore geography. Ask each student to search the newspaper for stories that illustrate each of the five themes of geography -- location, place, human interaction and the environment, movement and communication, and regions.
Sort and classify. Label each of seven shoeboxes with one of the following newspaper categories: News, Editorials, Features, Humor, Advertising, Sports, and Entertainment. Ask students to cut out the newspaper stories they read each day and put each one in the appropriately labeled shoebox to sox. You might suggest adjectives such as factual, sad, inspiring, opinionated, misleading, silly, serious, and biased. Discuss and compare the adjectives.
Play a current events game. Make a list of five categories that might be created using the newspaper, such as Countries, Weather Events, Mathematical Symbols, Movies, and Technology Terms. Ask students to search the newspaper for information related to each category and to write a question based on the information they find.

ENCYCLOPEDIA

WHAT IS ENCYCLOPEDIA?
An encyclopedia (also spelled encyclopaedia ) is a comprehensive written compendium that holds information from either all branches of knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge. An encyclopaedia article also often includes many maps and illustrations, as well as bibliography and statistics.

PURPOSE OF ENCYCLOPEDIA:

Collect knowledge disseminated around the globe; to set forth its general system to the men with whom we live, and transmit it to those who will come after us, so that the work of preceding centuries will not become useless to the centuries to come; and so that our offspring, becoming better instructed, will at the same time become more virtuous and happy, and that we should not die without having rendered a service to the human race in the future years to come.

ENCYCLOPEDIA AND DICTIONARY:

SIMILARITY
Ø Both encyclopaedias and dictionaries have been researched and written by well-educated, well-informed content experts.

DISSIMILARITY

Ø A dictionary primarily focuses on alphabetical listing of words and their definitions whereas an encyclopaedia article covers not a word, but a subject or discipline.
Ø Synonymous words and those related by the subject matter are to be found scattered around the dictionary, giving no obvious place for in-depth treatment whereas in encyclopedia synonymous terms for the topic in the article is able to treat it in more depth and convey the most relevant accumulated knowledge on that subject.



FOUR MAJOR ELEMENTS WHICH DEFINES ENCYCLOPEDIA:
Ø its subject matter
Ø its scope
Ø its method of organization
Ø its method of production


SUBJECT MATTER:
Ø Encyclopaedias can be general, containing articles on topics in every field. General encyclopaedias often contain guides on how to do a variety of things, as well as embedded dictionaries. There are also encyclopaedias that cover a wide variety of topics but from a particular cultural, ethnic, or national perspective, such as the Great Soviet Encyclopedia or Encyclopaedia Judaica.
SCOPE:
Ø Works of encyclopedic scope aim to convey the important accumulated knowledge for their subject domain, such as an encyclopaedia of medicine, philosophy, or law. Works vary in the breadth of material and the depth of discussion, depending on the target audience.

METHOD OF ORGANIZATION:

Ø Some systematic method of organization is essential to making an encyclopaedia usable as a work of reference.
There have historically been two main methods of organizing printed encyclopedias:
  1. the alphabetical method (consisting of a number of separate articles, organised in alphabetical order)
  2. organization by hierarchical categories

The former method is today the most common by far, especially for general works.
The fluidity of electronic media, however, allows new possibilities for multiple methods of organization of the same content. Further, electronic media offer previously unimaginable capabilities for search, indexing and cross reference.

METHODS OF PRODUCTION:
Ø As modern multimedia and the information age have evolved, they have had an ever-increasing effect on the collection, verification, summation, and presentation of information of all kinds. Projects such as Everything2, Encarta, h2g2, and Wikipedia are examples of new forms of the encyclopaedia as information retrieval becomes simpler.

Some works titled "dictionaries" are actually similar to encyclopaedias, especially those concerned with a particular field (such as the Dictionary of the Middle Ages, the Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, and Black's Law Dictionary). The Macquarie Dictionary, Australia's national dictionary, became an encyclopedic dictionary after its first edition in recognition of the use of proper nouns in common communication, and the words derived from such proper nouns. Although the line between dictionary and encyclopedia is somewhat blurry, one test is that an encyclopedia as a factual work can reasonably be translated, whereas a dictionary as a linguistic work, cannot.

FREE ENCYCLOPEDIA

An Internet-based online encyclopedia to which anyone could submit content and that would be freely accessible.
Wikipedia that is a stable free encyclopedia project was able to be established on the Internet. The English Wikipedia became the world's largest encyclopedia in 2004 at the 300,000 article stage[18] and by late 2005, Wikipedia had produced over two million articles in more than 80 languages with content licensed under the copyleft GNU Free Documentation License. As of August 2009, Wikipedia has over 3 million articles in English and well over 10 million combined in over 250 languages. Since 2003, other free encyclopedias like Citizendium and Knol have appeared.


JOURNALS


WHAT IS A JOURNAL?
A journal is a print or electronic publication that is issued in successive parts (issues) with no predictable end in sight. Each journal issue consists of number of articles.
An article is a brief composition on a specific topic.

PURPOSE OF SCHOLARY JOURNALS

The very first purpose of academic journals is to inform repot on original research & findings.

TARGET AUDIENCE OF SCHOLARY ARTICLES

Researchers, students & specialists in the field.

WHAT DOES THE JOUNAL ARTICLES INCLUDE?

Journal articles include:
v Medical discoveries
v Technological & experimental breakthroughs
v Case studies of groups or companies
v Reports on current events

USE OF JOURNALS

Information found in journals is useful because:
  1. it reflects research, academic discourses & opinion
  2. it may not be available in books or other publications.
  3. scholarly research is published in journals first.

Scholar journal articles are important sources for students & academic researchers because they:

· reflect current research & knowledge.

· provide in-depth coverage
· are written by subject specialists
· cite references formally.

WHY USE JOURNALS IN FIRST PLACE?

®Because they are published at shorter intervals than books, journals are a good source of up-to-date material.
Newspapers & weekly journals Times educational supplement are good sources for current concerns.

® Major journals are peer-reviewed, which means that experts in the field have checked the material submitted before it is published: most academic research is first published in the form of journal article.

®Journal articles are shorter than books & easier to digest.





Workbooks

WHAT ARE WORKBOOKS?

Workbooks are the books containing various different exercises related to the textbook matter.

They are closely associated with textbooks and many of them are sold with textbooks.




USES OF WORKBOOKS


*Workbooks are an implication of theoretical study; these make the students understand the applications of the theory.

*As workbooks include different exercises, they help in developing creativity in the students.

*They provide a collection of objective exercise for the mastery of specific skills.

*They also include laboratory manuals, which are highly structured, and they provide direction for carrying out specific experiment with illustrated diagrams and also space for recording the outcome of the experiment.



WORKBOOKS AS TEACHING-AIDCAN BE USED EFFECTIVELY IN:

1. Reinforcement mode.
2.Motivational mode
3.To present bilingual or multilingual material.


Reinforcement Mode


This mode is the traditional approach and it involves use of workbooks activities to reinforce student-learning skills that have already been partially mastered.
*For English studies and to teach correct grammatical structures.


Motivational Mode


This mode incorporates exercise that can be completed successfully but demand a certain amount of creativity.
*For designing a machine to complete absurd activity to convey the idea of relationship between an object form and its function.

Multilingual Material


Workbooks are very suited for multilingual instruction.
· For classes composed of students speaking more then one language, workbooks can be designed that contains a single set of exercises accompanied by parallel instructions in two or more language.


ATLAS

WHAT IS AN ATLAS?

An atlas is a collection of maps compiled into an easy-to-use format. It usually has an accompanying gazetteer, which is an alphabetical listing of place names.

TYPES OF ATLAS

Atlas may be general in nature & cover entire globe, or they may be specific to geographical locations, topics or time periods. Specialized atlases exist in wide variety of topics.


USES OF ATLAS

Basically, by ‘Atlas’ we generally mean the geographical atlas.
In schools, we generally use atlas for:
i. the view of the whole world
ii. locating a place or country
iii. finding latitude & longitude for a place or country
iv. the knowledge of the geographical features of different regions
v. Study of:
  • distribution of wildlife species
  • population distribution & density
  • earthquake zones
  • national highways & railway lines etc…


Other Uses:
Useful for driving purposes, construction purposes
Helpful in tourism


AIMS WITH ATLAS AS TEACHING-AID


General knowledge:
Study from an atlas helps in developing general knowledge among the students; Ex- knowledge about
Geographical locations, rainfall etc. as it includes some geographical notes also.
Global awareness:
Since an atlas includes not only one country or place, it pictures the view of whole world and also other planets, students become globally aware.


An idea of designing maps:
The various maps in an atlas give the students or make them think about the techniques to design maps.

GOOGLE EARTH

Google Earth is a ‘virtual globe’ and geographic information program that was originally called Earth Viewer, and was created by Keyhole, Inc, a company acquired by Google, in 2004. It maps the Earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography and GIS 3D globe.
Google Earth displays satellite images of varying resolution of the Earth's surface, allowing users to visually see things like cities and houses looking perpendicularly down or at an oblique angle. The degree of resolution available is based somewhat on the points of interest and popularity, but most land (except for some islands) is covered in at least 15 meters of resolution. Melbourne, Victoria; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Cambridge, Cambridgeshire include examples of the highest resolution, at 15 cm (6 inches).
Google Earth allows users to search for addresses for some countries, enter coordinates, or simply use the mouse to browse to a location.Google Earth supports managing three-dimensional Geospatial data through Keyhole Markup Language (KML).
Recently, Google added a feature that allows users to monitor traffic speeds at loops located every 200 yards in real-time.
Google's Earth maps are being updated each 5 minutes.

SKY MODE

Google Sky is a feature that was introduced in Google Earth 4.2 on August 22, 2007, and allows users to view stars and other celestial bodies. Also visible on Sky mode are constellations, stars, galaxies and animations depicting the planets in their orbits.
On March 13, 2008 Google made a web-based version of Google Sky available at http://www.google.com/sky/.

STREET VIEW

On April 15, 2008 with version 4.3, Google fully integrated its Street View into Google Earth.Google Street View provides 360° panoramic street-level views and allows users to view parts of selected cities and their surrounding metropolitan areas at ground level.
When it was launched, only five cities were included. A recent update has now implemented Street View in most of the major cities of Australia and New Zealand as well as parts of Japan, Spain, France, the UK, the Netherlands, Italy, Switzerland, Portugal, and Taiwan.
Google Street View, when operated, displays photos that were previously taken by a camera mounted on an automobile, and can be navigated by using the mouse to click on photograph icons displayed on the screen in your direction of travel. Using these devices, the photos can be viewed in different sizes, from any direction, and from a variety of angles.

OCEAN

Introduced in version 5.0 (February 2009), the Google Ocean feature allows users to zoom below the surface of the ocean. Supporting over 20 content layers, it contains information from leading scientists and oceanographers. On April 14, 2009, Google added underwater terrain data for the Great Lakes.

HISTORICAL IMAGERY

Introduced in version 5.0, Historical Imagery allows users to traverse back in time and study earlier stages of any place. This feature is very useful for research purposes that require analysis of past records of various places.

MARS

Google Earth 5 includes a separate globe of the planet Mars, that can be viewed and analysed for research purposes. The maps are of a much higher resolution than those on the browser version of Google Mars and it also includes 3D renderings of the Martian terrain.

MOON

On July 20th 2009, the 40th anniversary of the Apollo 11 mission, Google introduced the Google Earth version of ‘Google Moon’ which allows users to view satellite images of the Moon.


DICTIONARY

WHAT IS A DICTIONARY?
A dictionary is a collection of words in a specific language, often listed alphabetically, with definitions, etymologies, phonetics, pronunciations, and other information; or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, also known as a lexicon.
FORMS OF DICTIONARY
Dictionaries are most commonly found in the form of a book, but some newer dictionaries, like StarDict and the New Oxford American Dictionary are dictionary software running on PDAs or computers.
There are also many online dictionaries accessible via the Internet.


BASIC THINGS INCLUDED IN A DICTIONARY (ENGLISH):
Ø Standard spelling & pronunciation of words.
Ø Meanings of phrases & idioms
Ø Inflection of verbs (past tense & past participle), comparative, superlative degrees.
Ø The particular word is which part of the speech like adjective, adverb, etc
Generally dictionaries also include some factual information also like name of all countries & their capitals, conversion tables, etc.


HOW TO USE A DICTIONARY?

First, think of the word to look up.

Then open the dictionary to as close to the first letter or two of the word as possible. Then either turn back or forward to find the word.

To help the search, dictionaries have guidewords to help. The first guideword is the first word on a page, and the second guideword at the top of the page is the last word on the page.

DICTIONARY AS TEACHING-AID

n Develop correct vocabulary, which in turn helps in teaching comprehension
n Improve/correct pronunciation, useful for correct speech.
n Building good grammar.
n All this in turn helps in improving writing skills.


SPECIALIZED DICTIONARIES

According to the Manual of Specialized Lexicographies a specialized dictionary (also referred to as a technical dictionary) is a lexicon that focuses upon a specific subject field.
Following the description in The Bilingual LSP Dictionary lexicographers categorize specialized dictionaries into three types. A multi-field dictionary broadly covers several subject fields (e.g., a business dictionary), a single-field dictionary narrowly covers one particular subject field (e.g., law), and a sub-field dictionary covers a singular field (e.g., constitutional law).
For example, the 23-language Inter-Active Terminology for Europe is a multi-field dictionary, the American National Biography is a single-field, and the African American National Biography Project is a sub-field dictionary.

Major English dictionaries

[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dictionary#cite_note-10#cite_note-10|]]]




REFERENCES:
1. www.en.wikipedia.org
2. www.waikato.ac.nz
3. Educational Technology by ANURADHA SHARMA
4. www.libray.thinkquest.org
5. www.google.co.in