Print Instructional Media:-
It is used in correspondence education or postal education. The printed matter and lessons are sent to the students through postal services.

Non Print Instructional Media:-
It is used in distance teaching with the help of radio, television and computer etc. The subject matter is communicated to the students by employing technical devices or electronic media.
Non print media have certain unique qualities which facilitate distance learning much more than the ‘print’ medium in certain media lend themselves particularly well to certain generalized education purposes and provide support to print based instruction. Although print medium is adaptable to many different learning environments, it is economical and it has traditionally been used for pedagogical purposes, yet it has some serious limitations.


Limitations Of Print Instructional Media:-

1) It demands literacy and study skills. The absence of literacy on a part of prospective learner can make the print medium totally useless.
2) ‘Print’ doesn’t allow immediate teacher-teacher & learner- learner interaction.
3) No active participation of learner.
4) Entails long waiting periods for feedbacks from either side.
5) Difficult to provide individualized instruction.
6) No proper training in psychomotor skills
7) Entails pedagogically cumbersome length (spatially and temporally while instructing on subtle complex process).

Strengths of Non Print Media:



1) Facilitate Diverse Learning Objectives:-`In distance teaching the instruction moves away from conventional face-to-face teaching mode and reasonable reliance on various other media becomes necessary to meet diverse learning objectives. Printed media cannot meet all learning objectives very well.

2) Contribute to self learning activities:- certain non print media formats and delivery systems contribute particularly well to distance student’ s learning activities . Electronic media can help promote the ‘discovery’ approach to learning.

3) They motivate learners psychologically:- The use of electronic media has proved psychologically exciting for students –both at the preparation and participation stages –and consequently it promotes learning . Several of the introductory functions like arousing motivation may be served by non print media more effectively than by a printed text. Variety and newness of these media excite and motivate students for learning.
These media can easily stimulate imagination and interest.
4) Involvement of learners:- the non print media achieve learner involvement and participation and thereby facilitate learning. A psychologist found that psychomotor skills are learned better if practiced. For e.g. A group discussion after the use of audio cassette can also be used to enhance learning
5) Increases student’s concentration: - since instruction through electronic media is well structured, the objectives are clearly defined, and the instructional environment is created to achieve those objectives. Printed media is also structured with clearly stated objectives but fails to create the desired atmosphere.
6) Accommodate individual needs:- the variety and flexibility of new media offer the opportunity to adapt any media combination for use in individualized instruction . For e.g. Programmed instruction or systems of audio tutorial instructions are specifically designed for individualized learning.
7) They help learning monitor the information input: - some of the technological devices like the audio cassettes allow the learners the freedom of choice and length of information they would like to get exposed to. They also allow the learners the freedom to listen to information pack either whole or partially and for any no. Of times.

8) They extend the role of a teacher: -
With the use of this instructional technology the role of a teacher extends further than merely being a dispenser of information. Media utilization permits teachers to become creative managers of learning experiences.

USE OF AUDIO AIDS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING:-

In this auditory materials are used by schools to provide learning experiences of a specific type –“Experiences of pure learning”
- Radio & recording are addressed to one sense only.
- Half of the world’s adult population today can listen understandingly, as they can neither read nor write. They manage effectively with spoken symbols.
- Throughout centuries the human race conversed through speaking and listening.
- In ancient times teaching was basically a matter of oral communication.
- Greek adults were educated by the spoken words.
- Technical inventions made possible our widespread use of printed materials at a time when the spoken word could not travel beyond the range of speaker’s voice.
- Today the possibilities for oral communication have become virtually limitless.
These two facts are extremely important to us. As a teacher we must use both written and spoken symbols wisely.


Development Of Educational Radio:-


Two sides of this aspect are-

- The establishment of broadcast network.
- The preparation and production of specific educational program


Learning recorder

Introduction Of Educational Radio

It can be viewed in five types: -
-School broadcast
-Adult education and community development project
-Farm and home broadcast
-University broadcast
-Language learning projects

School broadcast- it is mainly curriculum oriented. But because of absence of common syllabi and timetable in schools, even within same state, it was not successful.
For example- central institute of educational technology (CIET), a wing of NCERT regularly produces programmes for primary classes and these programs are broadcast by Jaipur & Ajmer stations of the air.

Adult education: -in 1956, an attempt was made to communicate with the rural people and promote innovation through broadcasts. The programme was called ‘ radio forum’ and was tried in 144 villages in vicinity of Poona. Radio forums (defined as a listening-cum-discussion-cum-action group) of village of about twenty members each were organized in everyone of the 144 villages .the members listened to a 30 min radio program on some agricultural or community development practice, then discussed it and decided whether to take any action on it in their own village.

Farm and home broadcast:- it was initiated in 1966; these broadcasts weredesigned to provide information and advice on agricultural and allied topics. The aim was to educate farmers and provide them assistance in adopting innovative practices in their fields.

University broadcast: - radio programs on subject of academic interest have been broadcast from the AIR stations from the very beginning of organized broadcasting. Two types of programs are there under this broadcast

- General program: it includes the topics of public interest.
- Enrichment program: -it support correspondence education offered by universities in the respective jurisdiction

Language learning project in 1979–80, the AIR conceived and implemented an experiment to use radio broadcast for language teaching. The experiment was conducted in collaboration with the department of education, Government of Rajasthan. Under this experiment an attempt was made to teach Hindi as a first language to school going children. The experiment was called the radio pilot project.

Advantages Of Radio:-



1) Immediacy: -Books tell us about events that may have occurred long ago. Because they are not revised each other, may often be five or ten years out of date. But radio can be as upto date as the latest broadcast.

2) Realism :- An announcer who tells radio listeners what he sees as he sees it may be more impressive than a newspaper reporter dealing with identical matter. The broadcaster is on the scene, and tones of his voice communicate shades of meaning that the newspaper story, hours or days after the event, cannot convey. We may hear not only broadcaster’s voice but also the background. We should bring the world to the school and school to the world, which a radio can do very effectively. But radio’s realism lacks the pictorial quality provided by television & motion pictures.

3) The consequent of space and time: - Through on-the-spot broadcasts radio can actually overcome the barriers of space & time.


4) Emotional impact: - Radio brings dramatic feelings into the classroom . It has the warmth of drama; the personal feeling of actor’s presence- it can carry to the listener all the emotional overtones of the broadcast materials. Human voice can be heard & its feeling and attitude conveyed even through one has closed his eyes. Sound alone can convey deep emotional experience with great poignancy.

5) Authencity: - Radio has been often used to bring two classrooms the first kind of expertness, authority in subject matter. Expertness in methods is also provided by radio.


6) Inexpensiveness:- Radio can be used inexpensively when there is need to emphasize local problem or conditions of one kind or another because it reaches many people , it’s per capita cost is small.









Limitations Of Educational Radio:-

1) The radio is not a flexible medium. There is No face –to-face interaction/dialogue or discussion between the listener and the speaker. In the absence of motivation, guidance and supervision the atmosphere for learning is not very conducive and teaching learning becomes one-way process.
2) The doubts and queries arising in the mind of a learner cannot be attended to immediately.
3) It may not be effective medium for all types of course material. For e.g. visual illustration is not possible.
4) There is a dearth of adequately qualified personnel for producing worthwhile educational programmes. Radio programming demands experienced and creative person with both production and academic background .it is difficult to find the person along both the lines and in the absence of this the quality of output suffers.
5) Educational radio program have not been given adequate and appropriate broadcast time chunk. This causes inconvenience to learners; as they have to make themselves available during the schedule broadcast time whatever be their engagements then.
6) More heterogeneous (such as illiterate, school-dropouts, the unemployed) the more difficult is to produce a radio programme of common utility.
7) Educational broadcast is not a priority area of programming in the radio set up.


TAPE RECORDINGS

The tape recorder, with which the magnetic tape is used, can record a message and play it back a pre-recorded tape.

DEVELOPMENT IN RECORDING FIELD:-

1) Facilitates program exchanges in educational radio. Thus stimulated the making of recording in the classroom.

2) The development of long playing records has led to a supply of educational materials that can be reproduced for an extended, uninterrupted listening period on a smaller machine.

1) Increase in number of outstanding radio programmes.

2) A number of textbook publishers have been preparing records to supplement the reading materials.


Advantages Of Recordings Over The Radio:-


1) Radio is one way while recordings are two-way communication: we can stop a recording to clarify certain points and can play it over again & again. It is totally controlled by us.

2) Radio is inconveniently scheduled “one time event” which recordings eliminate: - we can play our transcription wherever we wish.


3) Recording can be reheard and evaluated: - activity can be planned at leisure, carefully and with the comforting knowledge as recording is ours to control and not something that control and not something that controls our lesson as in the case of radio.

4) Recording can be made in our own school:- by using simple mechanical aids we can make our own recordings and use it as teaching aids.


Limitations of record players

1) It is difficult to locate specific recorded items on a magnetic tape:- if a recorded message is in the middle of a reel of tape and there is no record of the number of revolutions and no marker on the reel , the search may take a long time .

2) The great variety of tape speeds and arrangement of tracks (half, quarter, stereo etc) may cause some difficulty if a recording is made one one machine and is played back on another which may not have the same features.